What Is a Rheumatologist? A rheumatologist is a medical doctor who specializes in arthritis and related diseases. Most often, a patient is referred to a rheumatologist by their primary care physician after presenting symptoms of arthritis. They deal mainly with clinical problems involving joints, soft tissues, autoimmune diseases, vasculitis, and heritable connective tissue disorders. Future treatment may include gene therapy as well. At present evidence-based medical treatment of rheumatological disorders has helped patients with rheumatism lead a near-normal life. Systemic conditions and connective tissue diseases Lupus Sjögren's syndrome Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) Polymyositis Dermatomyositis Polymyalgia rheumatica Mixed connective tissue disease Polychondritis Sarcoidosis Vasculitis Polyarteritis nodosa Henoch-Schönlein purpura Serum sickness Wegener's granulomatosis Giant cell arteritis, Temporal arteritis Takayasu's arteritis Behçet's syndrome Kawasaki's disease (mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome) Buerger's disease (thromboangiitis obliterans) Soft Tissue Rheumatism Local diseases and lesions affecting the joints and structures around the joints including tendons, ligaments capsules, bursae, Stress Fractures, muscles, nerve entrapment, vascular lesions, ganglions, localised Soft tissues disorders. For example: Low back pain Tennis elbow Golfer's elbow Olecranon bursitis Fibromyalgia Diseases affecting bones Osteoporosis Osteomalacia Renal osteodystrophy Fluorosis Rickets Congenital and familial Disorders affecting Joints Hyperextensible joints Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Achondroplasia Marfan's Syndrome Diagnosis Apart from an extensive medical history, there are useful methods of diagnosis both performed easy enough in a physical examination and, on the other hand, more complicated ones, often requiring a rheumatologist or other specialised physicians.